Comic Art in Museums. Edited by Kim A. Munson. University Press of Mississippi, 2020. 386pp, $30 paperback.
A pet peeve of mine, a whole little schtick, was my often complaining about how museums and galleries would refer to some works as “comics-related” but never would go that extra step and simply refer to a work that was, indeed, a work of comics, like a lot of work by Raymond Pettibon, as simply “comics.” Sure, when confronted with an actual comic strip or comic book, then, yes, that was comics. But when it was a work that was clearly utilizing all the elements of comics, was up to its eyeballs in the comics medium, it was politely referred to by the art world establishment as a “comics-related” work. Now, sure, one only needs to look at the Pop Art movement to appreciate that distinctions have to be made. But still, what was happening was that comics, as an art medium in its own right, was being dismissed. It can get complicated, needlessly so, in determining between high and low art and all the myriad interconnections. Comics have had a rough go of it, especially in the United States. So, what do we mean when we refer to comics and are all comics now supposed to be treated as works of art? No, all comics are not works of art. Just as all dime store novels are not works of art! Maybe that helps to clear things up. A new book, with the goal of clearing things up is Comic Art in Museums, edited by Kim A. Munson, a collection of essays, dispatches from the art wars. And make no mistake, when it comes to jockeying for position, on all fronts, there’s a war going on.
Perhaps one of the greatest villains, or scapegoats, in the ongoing war between high and low is Roy Lichtenstein. And that’s a shame because his is a brilliant body of work. In the tradition of comics at its most brash, Art Spiegelman, known for Maus, winner of the 1992 Pulitzer Prize, fired off a salvo aimed right at Roy Lichtenstein in a review he created using the comics medium on a page in Artforum, December 1990. It was a review of the latest attempt to place comics in a fine arts setting: The Museum of Modern Art’s High and Low: Modern Art and Pop Culture. Spiegelman would have been far better off had he taken his time to calmly comment on the show instead of feature Lichtenstein and the supposed wrong he’d done. To be clear, Roy Lichtenstein did nothing wrong. Simply put, he took comics from one context and put them in another. Taking one thing and repurposing it is as old as cave paintings. Seriously, look at an artist like Édouard Manet and you can see what intriguing results you get from recontextualizing. Pop Art was doing this left and right and it wasn’t always simply a comment on consumer trash culture. It could also be contemplating formal issues, right down to playing with the juxtapostion of Ben Day dots. It was a lot of things and one thing you can definitely call it is art.
As Kim A. Munson’s research bears out, the earliest comics shows, from the ’30s and ’40s, did not feature pointed issues of legitimacy. In fact, it was more of a display of craftsmanship that was honored. We seem to come full circle in honoring craftsmanship with the landmark Masters of Comic Art show from 2005 but more on that in just a moment. Really, all of this coming to terms with comics comes down to what one group of connoisseurs thinks over another group of connoisseurs! What I appreciate about Munson’s book is how objective she is with the multitude of facts to dig through. Anyway, it was a very different scene when comics began to be shown in anything resembling a formal gallery setting. As Munson reports, back in the ’30s and ’40s, comics were appreciated and everyone was happy, just as long as you tolerated the common view that comics were quaint Americana. What makes things more complicated is that, in so many cases, comics are no better or worse than soap operas. So, your head will explode if you try to justify all comics. That’s where overanalyzing can run you aground. So, when in doubt, consider some common sense. There is agreement that comics can rise to high levels of excellence, such as the work of Milton Caniff, Winsor McCay and George Herriman. It has to do with originality of content and masterful and innovative use of formal elements. Honestly, you know it when you see it. You don’t have to leave it up to so-called experts to explain to you what is art and what is not art. It is a stereotype, really, to say that all diehard fans of comics are only interested in a particular plot. But the connoisseurs and so-called experts too often conclude that’s the case.
Comics have gone through a series of misunderstandings, especially in the United States. While Munson’s book doesn’t explicitly state that it is only covering U.S. comics, it does naturally slip into that focus. This is a collection of written pieces inextricably linked to American taste. It is that taste upon which the perception of comics depends upon in many ways. We Americans want to have it all, be brash and outspoken while being respected on all fronts. Collectively, we are not a shy bunch. And, as a group, we seem to be compelled to push and pull. And so something as egalitarian as well as just plain fun and stimulating as the comics medium is not going to get a free pass. So, where to begin? Well, in the beginning there was ignorance and indifference. As Denis Kitchen, an underground cartoonist and publisher of the prestigious Kitchen Sink Press, notes in his essay in this book, it seemed like comics came to life long before it gained any respectability. You could walk into the offices of United Feature Syndicate in the ’50s and find the original work of Al Capp, their star cartoonist, strewn across the floor of a storage room, complete with footprints. Al Capp, himself, hadn’t figured it out either and likened his world-famous Li’l Abner comic strip to a quick minute’s read on its way to becoming fish wrap. Even when it came to how to display the comic strip in public, it was thought that the finished printed color strip from the newspaper was far superior to the original. Heck, at first, original comic art wasn’t even considered an option as viewing material; and then, once found acceptable, it was simply pinned to the wall with tacks, no need to bother with framing it. That’s a far cry from today, of course, since first-rate work from the all-time best cartoonists is now properly valued. Denis Kitchen certainly knows this as his agency represents the estates of Will Eisner, Harvey Kurtzman, Al Capp, and many others.
So, how do you do justice to a work of comics, on a gallery wall, that was intended to ultimately be printed in a relatively small reading format? The fact remains that comics as an art form simply needs to be approached on its own terms. It’s not painting, for example, and doesn’t need to compete with it. When you come down to it, it is a hybrid art form, both visual and literary. Sure, there are comics without text but, essentially, comics is a form of storytelling. And, at the forefront, as I always like to point out, is the cartoonist-auteur, the one person who is engaged in the creation of a work of comics. This person might feel like creating outright paintings and all sorts of drawings and work in other media. What matters here is that comics, as an art form does have a core modus operandi: visual storytelling that uses visuals as a language and tends to be an artful combination of word and image. At its core, it is a sequential art or, at least, a form of storytelling. So, is it mainly visual or literary? It’s both. It’s a hybrid. Among the various art shows that have attempted to show comics, one of the best was 1991’s Misfit Lit and that’s simply because it was put together by Gary Groth, co-founder of Fantagraphics Books, as well as Larry Reid, folks who intimately understand comics. The big secret is to display the work in proper context.
It is work from the cartoonist-auteur that gets to the heart of the matter and best speaks to the issue of comics as art. Misfit Lit: Contemporary Comic Art, which began in Seattle and then went on a brief tour, provided not only a showcase of superstar talent but a serious look at the comics medium through a rich variety of work including Bernie Krigstein, Harvey Kurtzman, Charles Schulz, Basil Wolverton, Howard Cruse, Justin Green, Roberta Gregory, Chester Brown, Charles Burns, Peter Kuper, William Messneer-Loebs, Jim Woodring, and many more.
Often, what people want is to be dazzled and one show that did just that was the 2005 show, Masters of American Comics, which, in no small part, was a reaction to the very same MOMA high low show of 1990 that had so incensed Art Spiegelman. This was a chance to set the record straight. Comics, all by itself, without need of comparison to painting, would dazzle an audience. This is a prime example of comics experts setting the tone. Art Spiegelman acted as a consultant and helped to choose the fifteen featured cartoonists, which included himself. No harm done, really. It was a wonderful show. And it served its purpose. As co-curator John Carlin put it, this was an opportunity to give a certain set of cartoonists an added “glow,” in the same spirit as, in the late ’50s, French critics elevated popular Hollywood directors Hitchcock and John Ford to the level of art-house icons. What was once one thing became another.
It all comes down to legitimacy. We creative types all hunger for legitimacy, especially if we’re creating work that we know is deserving of more serious acknowledgement. Comics, as a whole, have been howling for such validation. Case in point is the career of R. Crumb, the ringleader of much of the mayhem and glorious creative output of the underground comix movement. Is a lot of that work today under fire? The short answer is yes. In more recent years, what has Crumb done in order to perhaps appeal to a larger audience? Crumb turns the Bible into a comic book! For anyone familiar with its contents, it basically allows Crumb to be Crumb. Crumb recently took on The Book of Genesis with spectacular results. This is a case of a savvy master creating a work with one eye on the printed result and another eye anticipating a presentation of original artwork to the public. Another recent Crumb show was at the prestigious David Zwirner art gallery in New York. For that show, Crumb was presented in historical context. And, since Crumb is still an active artist, one room was dedicated to recent work that was as vibrant and compelling as anything you would expect from one of Chelsea’s blue chip galleries. Sure, a lot of these were more one-shot portraits but that’s really the whole point. Comics is an art medium. And artists are artists. Sometimes artists create comics and sometimes they create other forms of art. And when a work of art is comics, well, there’s no shame in saying that. The point is that Crumb was able to ride the waves of an often provocative and controversial career. Finally, he’s been there to guide the narrative, set the record straight, and firmly establish his position.There are a number of essays in this book that conclude Crumb is Crumb and that’s worth respect.
Whoever gets noticed the most then gets to move forward and, ultimately, gets to be remembered for posterity. Sometimes merit is not the most important factor but sheer persistence in determining who reaches to the top. However, it is only after numerous cycles of shows, reviews, and whatever else, before the true artists become most apparent and remain standing. After a long process, common sense will play a more important role, and out into the world, like a reborn babe, will emerge undisputed names like George Herriman, Milton Caniff and Jack Kirby.
I can’t stress enough the importance of objectivity in a collection such as this. Munson has done such an admirable job of organizing this multitude of dispatches from the front lines, including her own work. And, all the while, she doesn’t step in to clear the air with any speculation of her own. She lets the work speak for itself. And, in doing so, it’s clear to me that she sees there is plenty of work still ahead in understanding comics. The very last piece included in this book is from 2017 by Alexi Worth and explores the work of Jack Kirby. For me, and perhaps to any careful reader, the frustrating conclusion Worth reaches is that there is a strong case to be made for Jack Kirby creating what amounts to art, despite the fact he had to work in such a minor art form as comics! In Worth’s opinion, comics is essentially a mass entertainment machine: “The basic task of that medium is to transform neat rows of boxes into heterogeneous flow.” Poor Jack Kirby, in Worth’s view, was held back by comics “because his pictures were conceived as sequences.” How can you appreciate the artist if you don’t appreciate their art medium? Let me just insert here that I’d welcome further discussion with Worth since, to be fair, I see this as an evolving discussion. I also believe it is settled that comics is as legitimate an art form as any other. We don’t want that to get lost. And, again, I’ll state here that there is a wide spectrum of comics, not all linear and dependent on identical panels, although it doesn’t matter. In fact, comics do well with a set of limitations. Jack Kirby literally pushed the constraints of the picture plane. Other masters of comics, like Steve Ditko, seemed to revel within a certain set of order. And, despite what Worth concludes, comics don’t need to be hemmed in by addressing action only from one panel to the next. Many artists can speak to the interconnection of activity that is possible taking place all over the page as well as the dynamism going on between facing pages. Artist and scholar Frank Santoro is certainly a leading advocate of creating comics that work with the entire space not only between panels but also between pages. Well, the process of understanding comics goes on and this book will absolutely help with the ongoing discussion!
21 responses to “Review: COMIC ART IN MUSEUMS, Edited by Kim A. Munson”
Thanks for your review. I did make an effort to categorize artists as “primarily known for comics” in recognition that contemporary comics artists are working in many different formats.
I basically agree with you on Lichtenstein. I wish he had shared the wealth with people he appropriated from, but i still like his paintings. The comics paintings were actually a successful but pretty short part of his career. He was constantly moving on to new subjects.
I am based in CA, so yes, a lot of the story I’m telling is seen from the lens of the US, but I have also included essays from scholars on Brazil, France, Japan, Dubai, and other countries.
Thanks so much for your comments. Comics are such a fascinating subject to tackle, to be sure. I think the comics medium will continue to fascinate and, for the most part, happily develop within the parameters of what we see as comics.
Lichtenstein, Warhol, and so many other Pop Art figures, as you say, were artists exploring numerous themes and subjects.
Yes, I do apologize for not brining out the fact that there are most definitely a number of essays from outside the US. I think, for the scope of my review, I tied things up in a way that made for a smooth and more focused narrative.
Well, this book really stands out. I invite you to do an interview if you should have availability. Again, thanks so much for taking the time to comment.
This is a really important topic to focus and people need to realize the impact of comics as an art form and as an important cultural element that needs to be studied more, especially its impact on our current culture and how the art form is transforming into something new and fascinating.
It is a bit complicated where I come from (Kuwait) but our efforts in expanding the comics art community is slowly getting recognized and more people are getting interested in the art form through seminar discussions and gallery exhibitions. However, the fact that this art is associated with movies and TV might be the reason to downgrade it as a form of creative art for the reasons you have mentioned.
Thanks for the great review. Will definitely get the book and read more about this topic.
Comics covers quite a lot of ground. It is vast and complex. It is ubiquitous. In general, it is accessible. By and large, it seems safe to say, more people relate to comics than to paintings. So, this supposed hi/lo dichotomy can sometimes seem to favor comics and sometimes seem to favor paintings. Ultimately, comics are well worth further study and there is still much to learn when presenting comics on a gallery wall, in the US or anywhere around the world.
Thank you. I appreciate your comments.
I would be interested to know more about comics in Kuwait. In the book I reprint an extensive article about the Comic Art Gallery in Dubai by John Lent, editor of the International Journal of Comic Art. I hope you have access to this Journal as there are frequently articles about comics in your region.
As to your comments, in the US at least, the association with film and TV is actually a plus. Museums are more likely to risk a spot in their exhibition schedule on something with name recognition. Although artists with some film industry buzz are desirable, US art museums are still not very interested in superheroes. The big Marvel show that is touring, for example, draws big crowds to science and history museums, but art museums wouldn’t touch it. Graphic novels have expanded past superheroes and museums are often looking to established artists that can carry a show like R. Crumb, Art Spigelman, or Jack Kirby.
It’s a never-ending exploration–and that’s great. It’s good to explore the road blocks and misunderstandings. No doubt, popular movies and TV have much to offer and, in their own right, can and do reach the level of art. The world of superheroes is far more than it might seem at first glance too, to say the least!
I am the head of the Comics and Manga section in Kuwait’s Cartoon Society. This society has government support and it supports all kinds of cartoon and caricature artists. The comics and manga thing is newly established but we are trying to hold some events, galleries, and discussions on the topic (all online now for obvious reasons).
I even suggested including comics as a literary topic to in a cultural/ literary event with the British embassy but that got postponed even before the planning started.
In addition to that, we also have activities within the Middle East but the comic art scene is still mostly focused on political/ editorial caricature, except for a few artists.
In college education, some of my friends that teach literature in private universities have included comics in their curriculum and its working out great.
Speaking for myself, I did work on a few research papers in my undergraduate studies and graduate studies on comics in relation to literary theory and comparative studies, some of the professors in Kuwait University encourage students to explore the comics genre in their research.
To sum it up, there are lots of great people with great efforts on the academic level, but I see that there is a gap between academia and the artists themselves because their exposure to literature is not that strong.
About the journal, someone has recently told me about Mizna, an Arab American cultural journal, but I don’t think it’s dedicated only to comics. Will check the Dubai journal it sounds really interesting!
Thanks again and sorry for the long post
Hope, this all very informative and helpful. You are always welcome to stop by and provide feedback and maybe contribute some posts here. I think we all appreciate all you have to say.
Thanks, Henry. That’s really nice of you. I’m always checking for your updates and will definitely let you know once I have something worth sharing.
This is a script from one of my first seminars I did at a cultural organization called Contemporary Art Platform, it is a very basic but you might find some interesting things there: https://hopebaqshy.com/2018/05/05/comics-as-a-means-of-representing-individuals-identity/
I would be happy to do an interview, thank you.
That’s wonderful. We can set something up.
Hope, the IJOCA is a US based academic journal with worldwide comics coverage. You can find it here. http://www.ijoca.net/new/main.html
Thanks, Kim. I think I’ve used this journal before for one of my research projects. Great content!
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